Chronogram dating

, dates incorporated into Persian texts in disguised form, espe­cially those in which the letters of the alphabet have numerical value.The indication of dates in this way can be found in Persian poetry from the very beginning.Sometimes titles of books are to contains indications of the dates of their comple­tion. 595/1199) dated his travels by means of letters (e.g., , p. Some poets demonstrated their virtuosity by combining as many chronograms as possible in one poem.How far this process could go was demonstrated by Moḥtašam Kāšānī in six quatrains that he wrote upon the accession of the Safavid shah Esmāʿīl II to the throne in 984/1576: He incorporated no fewer than 1,128 different chronograms.

Besides, various evolutionary phases of insects and the corresponding driving forces of diversification remain to be recognized.

A complete timescale of divergences based on an uncorrelated log-normal relaxed clock model was established among all lineages of winged insects.

The inferred timescale for various nodes are congruent with major historical events including the increase of atmospheric oxygen in the Late Silurian and earliest Devonian, the radiation of vascular plants in the Devonian, and with the available fossil record of the stem groups to various insect lineages in the Devonian and Carboniferous..

Only in the 9th/15th century did the construction of chronograms become a very popular genre, however, cultivated both for practical purposes (especially in epigraphy) and as an exercise of poetic skills. 129-31) are traces of variant versions of these poems, which were put into circulation at different times. A combination of the names of months or seasonal festivals derived from different calendars, but without a year, provides an approximate date, as in Nīsān/Ramażān and Nowrūz/Rajab in (meaningful date), in which the date must be calculated from a word or a phrase with the help of the numerical values of the Arabic letters (see abjad).

The attention paid to chronograms in rhetorical theory is also comparatively recent. The use of a date as part of a pseudo-epigraphic puzzle has also been attested (Utas, 1973, p. Chronograms of this kind take the form of short phrases or single words like III, p.